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Population in Nicaragua
 
 
 

General

The population of Nicaragua in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations at 5,774,000, which placed it as number 105 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year, approximately 3% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 42% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 100 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2005-2010 was 2.7%, among the highest in the region. The projected population for the year 2025 was 8,318,000. The population density was 44 per km² (115 per mi²).

The UN estimated that 59% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 2.91%. The capital city, Managua, had a population of 1,098,000 in that year. Other major cities and their estimated populations are Granada 450,439; León, 145,000; Chinandega, 133,700; Esteli, 119,000; Masaya, 118,000; Matagalpa, 109,100; Chichigalpa, 97,387; Tipitapa, 67,925; and Juigalpa, 54,700.

Despite being one of the poorest countries in Latin America, Nicaragua has improved its access to potable water and sanitation and has ameliorated its life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and immunisation rates. However, income distribution is very uneven, and the poor, agriculturalists, and indigenous people continue to have less access to healthcare services. Nicaragua's total fertility rate has fallen from around 6 children per woman in 1980 to just above replacement level today, but the high birth rate among adolescents perpetuates a cycle of poverty and low educational attainment.

Nicaraguans emigrate primarily to Costa Rica and to a lesser extent the United States. Nicaraguan men have been migrating seasonally to Costa Rica to harvest bananas and coffee since the early 20th century. Political turmoil, civil war and natural disasters from the 1970s through the 1990s dramatically increased the flow of refugees and permanent migrants seeking jobs, higher wages, and better social and healthcare benefits. Since 2000, Nicaraguan emigration to Costa Rica has slowed and stabilised. Today roughly 300,000 Nicaraguans are permanent residents of Costa Rica – about 75% of the foreign population – and thousands more migrate seasonally for work, many illegally.

Overview

Population : 5,788,531 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure : 0-14 years: 30% (male 886,490/female 852,690)

15-24 years: 22.5% (male 653,868/female 651,076)

25-54 years: 37.4% (male 1,024,395/female 1,143,011)

55-64 years: 5.2% (male 141,026/female 162,159)

65 years and over: 4.7% (male 123,878/female 149,938) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios : total dependency ratio: 59.9 %

youth dependency ratio: 52.5 %

elderly dependency ratio: 7.4 %

potential support ratio: 13.5 (2013)
Median age : total: 23.7 years

male: 22.8 years

female: 24.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate : 1.05% (2013 est.)
Birth rate : 18.77 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate : 5.06 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate : -3.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanisation : urban population: 57% of total population (2010)

rate of urbanisation: 2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population : Managua (capital) 934,000 (2009)
Sex ratio : at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth : 19.7

note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2007 est.)
Maternal mortality rate : 95 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate : total: 21.09 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 24.19 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth : total population: 72.45 years

male: 70.32 years

female: 74.68 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate : 2.03 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate : 72.4% (2006/07)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate : 0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS : 6,900 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths : fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Health expenditures : 10.1% of GDP (2009)
Physician density : 0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2003)
Hospital bed density : 1.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source : improved:

urban: 98% of population

rural: 68% of population

total: 85% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2% of population

rural: 32% of population

total: 15% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access : improved:

urban: 63% of population

rural: 37% of population

total: 52% of population

unimproved:

urban: 37% of population

rural: 63% of population

total: 48% of population (2010 est.)
Major infectious diseases : degree of risk: high

food or water-borne diseases: bacterial diarrhoea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vector-borne disease: dengue fever and malaria (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate : 22.2% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight : 5.7% (2007)
Nationality : noun: Nicaraguan(s)

adjective: Nicaraguan
Ethnic groups : mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%
Religions : Roman Catholic 58.5%, Protestant 23.2% (Evangelical 21.6%, Moravian 1.6%), Jehovah's Witnesses 0.9%, other 1.7%, none 15.7% (2005 census)
Languages : Spanish (official) 97.5%, Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census)

note: English and indigenous languages found on the Atlantic coast
Literacy : definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 78%

male: 78.1%

female: 77.9% (2005 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) : total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 11 years (2003)
Education expenditures : 4.7% of GDP (2010)
Child labour - children ages 5-14 : total number: 223,992

percentage: 14 %

note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2005 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 : total: 8.6%

male: 8.1%

female: 9.7% (2006)

 

 

 
 

 



 


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